Belly Dance Time Line

. . . Continued, page 3 of 5

1489 • Ballet originates in Italy as a dance performed by men.

1492 • Queen Isabella of Castile exiles Jews from Spain. Moors are driven from Granada.

1500 • Flamenco dance develops when Moors and other minorities fleeing persecution commingle in the mountain regions of Spain.

1500-1600 • Construction of Tapkapi Palace in Istanbul (Byzantium or Constantinople). The palace typifies the setting of the harem dancers brought in to entertain the ladies of the harem.

1502 • Christopher Columbus makes first contact with Mayans

1503 • Leonardo De Vinci paints the Mona Lisa.

1533 • The sacking of Cuzco, Peru, by Pizarro

1559 • Pope Paul IV introduced the Pauline Index, a comprehensive document banning over 583 authors, including many scientists, either because they held heretical views or simply because they were Protestant.

1581 • Ballet is further developed in France.

1587 • Sir Walter Raleigh establishes first colony in North America.

1589 • Volz becomes popular in Royal European Courts.

1596-1650 • The fathers of mechanistic thinking that identify the body scientifically: Rene Descartes1632 -1704; John Locke, 1643-1727; Sir Isaac Newton predecessor Roger Bacon 1214-1294; and Aristotle 384 BC.

1601-1647 • King Louis XIII bans the Volz because the close hold of the dancers threatens morality.

1631-1653 • Taj Mahal is built

1643-1715 • Ballet reaches a peak in the court of King Louis XIV. The first female ballet dancers are introduced in 1681

1750-1830 • Britain's Industrial Revolution

1754 • First Walzen music written in Germany.

1761-1767 • Accounts of the Ghawazee are recorded by explorers bound for Saudi Arabia, and, along with sketches by Baurenfiend, are brought back to Frederick V of Denmark by Carsten Niebuhr.

1776 • America claims independence from Great Britain; Thomas Jefferson drafts the Declaration of Independence.

1789 • G.W. Brown reports Ghawazee dancers flourish as an accepted part of Egyptian Society.

1793 • Napoleon fights the Turks at the foot of the Pyramids; Opens up the orient to explorations and the Orientalist art era begins (and lasts for at least a century).

c. 1795 -1800 • The Orientalists art era begins;. Artists, writers and explorers bring back glimpses of the human side of the once feared, yet unknown, and to this point in time to the European mind, had been imagined as the heathen world of Islam. The images are rich and romanticized embellishments feeding the hungry western mind with exotic and curious delight.

1797 • Moralists proclaim the Waltz indecent, demoralizing and weakening to the mind and body.

1800-1815 • Tripolitan Wars in Syria; conflict between the United States and the Barbary States. Piracy had become a normal source of income in the North African Barbary States long before the United States came into existence. During the later Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812, the Barbary pirates increased their raids on American commerce. Algiers actually declared war on the United States. In 1815 a squadron under Decatur forced the dey of Algiers to sign a treaty renouncing U.S. tribute, and the so-called Algerine War was ended. When the sailors returned, they brought back as cargo tales of the exotic Middle Eastern dancing girls to the shores of San Francisco, known as the Barbary coast in the gold rush days of 1851.

1803 • Louisiana Purchase.

1811- 1877 • Francois Delsarte spent his life cataloging mankind's movement patterns. He studied humans of all walks of life from the beggar to king for the purposes of developing stronger oratory skills. Dance was not his focus, nor was dance particularly respected during his life. This body of information becomes very valuable to the future modern and ethnic dance pioneers. Ruth St Denis, Ted Shawn and Le Meri later write extensively about his work.

1832 • Ghawazee dancers of Cairo banished and Essne Khawals (female impersonators) take their place in public dancing.

1834 • Spanish Inquisition officially ends

1836 • Edward Lane publishes Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians; he likens Ghawazee dances to the Roman’s descriptions of Gaditae dances.

1837-1901 • Victorian period

1850 • Kuchuk Anem captivates Flaubert with her famous Bee Dance.

1850 • Gold Rush pushes populations across the wild frontiers of North America.

1851 • Oriental dancers appear at Crystal Palace Exhibition in London; Queen Victoria is present.

1861-1865 • American Civil War

1862 • Mexico gains independence from Spain.

1856 • Gerome goes to Egypt and makes detailed records of the dances of Hasne and others.

1869 • Suez Canal opens.

1876 • Columbia Exhibition in Philadelphia, America’s Centennial Celebration. Tunisian dancers appear.

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